The 5 Main Muscles of Movement.
Anatomy in detail:
The rectus femoris muscles are located at the anterior (front) of the femur, extending from pelvis to tibia, spanning the hip and knee joints.
The rectus femoris, when fully engaged, forms a strong pole down the front of each thigh, correctly aligning the hip and knee.
rectus ≅ straight
femoris ≅ femur
The rectus femoris is part of the quadriceps femoris muscle group, along with the 3 "vasti" muscles: the vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius and vastus medialis.
The rectus femoris is the only muscle of the quadriceps that attaches to the pelvis. The three vasti attach to the top of the femur and thus, do not cross the hip joint.
The rectus femoris can be thought of as the lead muscle of the quadriceps, correctly positioning each leg to the pelvis so the other three quadricep muscles can function correctly.
The proximal (closest to the centre of the body) attachments of the rectus femoris are to the pelvis. They are commonly described as "to the ilium of the pelvis via two heads - the straight head and the reflected head" but it is not that simple. Variations in the pelvic attachments of the rectus femoris have been observed.
The distal (furthest from the centre of the body) attachment of the rectus femoris is to the tibial tuberosity on the anterio-proximal tibia (the front, upper part of the shin bone).
The tibial tuberosity is easily palpated as a lump of bone on the front of the tibia, below the knee.
This attachment is shared with the three vasti muscles and is why these 4 muscles are grouped together as the quadricep femoris.
The quadricep muscles attach to tibial tuberosity via connective tissues which contain the patella (kneecap).
Think of the rectus femoris extending upwards from the tibial tuberosity by 'pulling your kneecaps up' and then the muscle being active all the way up to your hip bone. Like a strong pole up the front of each thigh.
The rectus femoris consists of vertically orientated muscles fibres sandwiched between two aponeuroses (strong, thin sheets of connective tissue) at the front and back of the muscle.
The anterior (front) aponeurosis covers the upper portion of the rectus femoris and is created by the tendinous heads (which attach to the pelvis) merging distally on the surface of the muscle.
The posterior (back) aponeurosis covers the lower two-thirds of the rectus femoris and consists of a thick, broad aponeurosis extending up from the kneecap via the superficial, central part of the common quadriceps tendon.
Articulations of the knee:
Medial and lateral condyles of the femur articulate with the tibial condyles.
the patella slides up and down the groove
Positioning/alignment is dependent on the action of muscles and condition of connective tissues.
Trochlear groove "the patellar surface of the femur" patellar groove, intercondylar groove/fossa.
The trochlear surface of the femur is divided into two facets, medial and lateral. Proximally, they are in continuity with a shallow groove conforming to the contours of the distal patellar articular surface. Curving distally and posteriorly, this groove deepens to become the intercondylar notch. external reference will open in new tab